A brief history of PUBLISHING
- Imagine a world without communications. Even the blind, deaf and mute have special ways of making others understand them. They use symbols and signs to communicate not only through spoken language but through many different forms like gestures, signals, sketches, drawings and carvings.
- It is known that our great forefathers used to write on walls of stone to record experiences and ideas. Many sketches were found in ancient caves where our great – great grandparents are believed to have lived long before anybody attempted writing history.
Assyrian and Babylonian Periods
- In these periods, people used symbols known as cuneiform symbols for writing. These symbols were chiseled or engraved on baked stone or clay. Excavated cities of long age revealed thousands of marble pillars and clay tablets with cuneiform characters inscribed on them.
- The people of the Nile developed another kind of writing called hieroglyphics, which are found inside and outside of the great pyramids of Egypt. They also invented paper, which was made from the pith of the papyrus plant.
The Phoenician Alphabet
- At around 200 B.C., the Phoenician invented the alphabet that we use today. They used this in recording their everyday business activities in different areas around Asia.
- Alphabet – a sentence form of graphs or characters, used to present the phonemic structure of a language.
- The problem was the development of tools and technology to reproduce these characters (alphabet) as a raised surface on a suitable material. During the 2nd century A.D., the Chinese began carving religious texts on stone, inking the raised surfaces and taking impressions. The carved wooden block called the block printing, uses ink that spreads evenly on metal or wood ands transfers evenly on paper.
- The final necessity was paper. Ts’ ai Lun invented paper about 105 A.D.. He devised a way of floating in water the fivers from tree barks, old rags, and hemp waste allow the fibers to settle and then drying them ino a sheet.
Publishing Techniques through the years
- Publishing is the activity that involves a selection of preparation and marketing of printed matter.
- It also refers to the preparation and distribution of written material for public use, such as the information in textbooks and newspaper.
- As it is known today depends on a series of 3 major inventions – writing, paper and printing.
- Printing is the art and technology of reproducing words and pictures on paper, cloth, or other surfaces.
- Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz Germany emerged as the person who was able to put together all the works of his predecessors. He invented the first cast movable pieces of type called the Movable Type.
- Printing was done by aligning or setting individual pieces of lead with raised letters in a straight line to form words and lines of type. This is known as handsetting. These groups of arranged lead would be applied with ink and paper is pressed onto them to make a printed output.
Emergence of Modern Printing
- A series of inventions in the 18th century spurred. All these inventions combined to make printing cheap and abundant (plentiful) and to place books in the hands of virtually anyone who wanted them.
- About 1810, the first workable cylinder press was developed in England by Friedrich Konig. The Konig press offered a major innovation – it was the first to use a heavy rotating cylinder to apply pressure to type on a flat bed. The cylinder increased the speed of the printing process to about 1, 100 sheets per hour, four times greater than that of any previous press.
- Another major advance in printing technology came in 1846 with an American Richard Hoe, created the first operational rotary press. It was made of rotating cylinders of running paper surrounding the central one.
- Printing is being revolutionized by advances in technology in the fields of automation, electronics and computers. The combination of computer technology and photocomposition (composing of printed matter by photographic means using a machine called photocomposer) has revolutionized typesetting machines.
- Typesetting means the assembly of letters into words and word s into lines, in a form suitable for multiple reproduction by one of the printing methods.