Parts of a Window (WordPad)

  • A Window is a rectangular area, which is framed by a border that displays data, programs, files, documents or information about the application.

Parts of a Window

  • Application Icon – once this icon is clicked, a menu will appear. This menu displays commands used to control the window.
  • Title Bar – this part of the window shows the name of the program or document.
  • Minimize Button – this reduces the window into a small button on the task bar.
  • Maximize Button – this enlarges the window to its fullest size on the screen.
  • Close – Button – this exits or closes a application window.
  • Restore Button – this only appears when the window is at its biggest size. Click this button to resize the window back to its original size.
  • Menu Bar – this is found below the title bar. It contains options or commands that can be used in working with the program.
  • Toolbars – these are found below the menu bar. The commands are represented by icons that one can find and use these commands easily.
  • Scroll Bars – these are found at the right side or bottom of the windows. These bars are used when the entire document does not fit the window or the screen.
  • Status Bar – this is found at the bottom part of the window. This contains information about what is the standing or situation of any object chosen in the program.

Starting MS Publisher

MS Publisher (MS Pub) – one of the most commonly used software in creating a publication. One can also make a lot of things like calendars, invitations or banners.

Parts of MS Publisher

Title Bar – located at the top of MS Pub where the name of the application and the filename appears.

Menu Bar – located below the title bar. It contains a group of choices that lets one do most Microsoft tasks.

Toolbar – shortcut to various commands that don’t require opening a menu or dialog box. There are two default toolbars: the standard and formatting toolbars.

Standard Toolbar – contains the most commonly used buttons that perform common tasks, such as saving, opening, printing, checking spelling, etc.

Formatting Toolbar – contains buttons that provide shortcuts for choosing fonts, font size, borders, alignments, etc. These are buttons that allow you to change the appearance of the words/characters in your document.

Toolbox – contains the basic tools need in a publication.

Ruler – serves as borders of the MS Pub workspace. They are on top and on the left side of the workspace.

Resize Handle – dragging this portion of the window will resize the active window equally on all sides.

Object Size Area – will show the size of the active or highlighted object in the work page in the unit of measurement, for example, 3.50 x 3.63 in.

Scroll Bar – allows one to view the hidden part of a work page. Sliders and arrows used to see the parts of the document that are not seen in the current window.

Object Position – displays the position of the object with respect to the horizontal and vertical distances of the objects.

Page Indicator – located at the lower left end of the horizontal scroll. It displays the page seen at the moment.

Work Page/ Workspace – this is where one lays out the text, graphics or pictures.

Ask a Question Box – shows the Help Topics that answer the question typed in the text box.

Task Pane – a window within an office application that provides commonly used commands. Its location and small size allows one to use these commands while still working on other files.

Control Buttons

Minimize – reduces the window and places it on the taskbar.

Maximize – displays the full screen view of the window.

Restore – puts the window back to its previous.

Close – automatically closes the application.

Start Menu

Windows XP’s Start menu – provides more options like displaying the name of the user who is logged on. It enables the most frequently used programs to be added to the top level and move any programs to the Start menu.

Parts

Pinned Items List – programs found on the top of the separator line. The programs on the pinned items list remain there and are always available for use. Programs can be added to the pinned item list.

Frequently Used Programs List – programs found below the separator line.

Start menu options

All programs – displays a submenu of programs or folders containing an application software. The menu may be different from what is installed in different PC’s. this may happen because one can add more programs.

My Recent Documents – this option displays a submenu of the currently used documents. But some computers may not display this. It depends on the options chosen from its properties.

To show/hide the most recently used documents on the start menu:

  1. Right – click the Start button
  2. Click the properties
  3. On the Taskbar and Start Menu dialog Box, click on Start menu.
  4. Click on Customize. Then choose advanced tab.
  5. On the advanced tab, select the List my most recently opened documents check box. Check or uncheck it to display or hide the list of the recently opened documents.

Control Panel – this provides options for a new hardware or customize the appearance of the computer, add or remove programs and set up network connections and user accounts. It has specialized tools that are used to change the way windows looks and how it behaves.

Search – search is used to locate pictures, music, documents, files and folders in the PC. Open a window where one can pick search options and work with search results.

How to use Search Menu.

  1. Click on the Start button.
  2. click on Search
  3. Choose a Search Option.
  4. In the <All or part of the file name> text box, type the filename of the missing or forgotten file.
  5. Indicate in the <Look in > drop down list the box, the drive where to search for.
  6. Click on the Search button.

Help and Support – this launches a window for help topics, tutorials, troubleshooting and other support services.

How to use the Help menu.

  1. Click the Start button.
  2. Choose the Help and Support menu. The help and support center window will appear.

Run – it is used to start a program by typing or browsing the executable command.

Starting a program using the Run menu.

  1. Click the Start button.
  2. Choose the Run menu. The Run dialog box appears.
  3. Type the filename or browse for the executable file in a particular folder.
  4. Click Browse, from drive C: double click the windows folder, look for the System 32 folder, open it and then double click MS Paint.
  5. Click Ok.

Log Off – this is the option to log off from the current user and log in with another user. You can also switch from one user to another.

Turn Off Computer – this is used to properly shut down windows before turning off or restarting the computer. Clicking the Turn Off Computer will display a dialog box.

  1. Stand by – this will put the computer into stand by mode, meaning the computer will power down some parts like the monitor and hard drive to preserve energy.
  2. Turn Off – this shuts down the Win XP and the Pc.
  3. Restart – This will restart the computer and reboot Win XP.

Stages of a Publishing Process

The Steps in publishing processes can be summed up in six steps, namely:

Designing – is the first step in the drawing board. Here, one thinks of what the end product will look like. It means drawing something first what is on one’s mind. It can be done by asking simple questions like the following:

  • What do I want to include in my publication?
  • What things will interest the readers?
  • Will I put pictures or drawings?
  • What kind of people will read my publications?
  • Once these questions have been answered, design sketches can be created.

Layout Design – this means determining where to put pictures and drawings on the paper and where the text will appear. Some of the guide questions on layout design are the following:

  • Does the text come before an object?
  • Is the text SUPER IMPOSED?
  • How big should the picture or object be?

Adding Text – this involves the information or the exact words that one would like to be written in the publication. It answers the questions:

  • Are my sentences clear and understandable?
  • Am I delivering messages?
  • What should I emphasize?
  • Am I using the right words or terms?
  • Is it interesting?

Adding objects or pictures – this is where objects or pictures are to be inserted in the publication. Adding objects and pictures makes the publication eye – catching and attractive to the readers.

Finalizing the layout – here, one gives the final layout and decides whether one needs to add or make changes or leave it the way it is. Very seldom is a publication left unchanged or unedited at this stage for this is where other people look at the work and spot errors normally missed while working on the material.

Printing the Final Layout – having been satisfied with the layout and with all the necessary corrections, additions or changes in the publication, sample copies can now be produced. This is also where camera shots of the publication is done to make hundreds or more copies of it.

Editor – are the ones who generate the ideas for a publication. They also find authors or writers to write the content of the reading material or manuscript. The editor can change the content of the manuscript as he/she pleases but he should talk to the writer first as a sign of courtesy.

Designers – plans the size, style and number of lines per page and the arrangement of pictures and objects and other similar concerns. Usually the designer works with the artist and the typesetter.

Typesetter – sets the book in type with the use of a typesetting machine.


Basic Elements of Windows XP

History of Computer

A long time ago…

  • People used only their hands and fingers to count.
  • Then man thought of better ways to do things.
  • One of these was to make a machine that would help him count.

Early computing devices

  • ABACUS – the Chinese people invented the abacus. It helped people add and subtract numbers. It was made up of beads that could move back and forth on rods.
  • PASCALINE – a French mathematician named Blaise Pascal invented the Pascaline. He invented this to help his father who worked in court. It made counting money easier, Pascaline could add and subtract long columns of numbers without making a mistake.
  • LEIBNITZ CALCULATOR – a German mathematician named Gottfried Leibnitz invented the Calculator. This works better than the Abacus and Pascaline. It could add, subtract, multiply and divide numbers.
  • Jacquard’s Loom – a man in France named Joseph Marie Jacquard invented the Jacquard’s Loom. It weaved cloth faster. It used punch cards in making patterns on cloth. The machine followed he instructions from the punch cards. Punch cards were fed into the loom and design on the cloth.
  • ANALYTICAL ENGINE – an English mathematician named Charles Babbage and Lady Ada Byron invented the Analytical Engine. This machine can do a lot of things by itself. It could solve problems using programs. It could store instructions just like computer nowadays. But they never finished the invention because there were many tiny parts needed to complete the machine. The creation of the parts needed time and effort.

Charles Babbage is known as the “Father of the Modern Computer” because of his great idea.

Lady Augusta Ada Byron is known as the “First Programmer”.

  • TABULATING MACHINE – an American statistician named Herman Hollerith invented the Tabulating Machine. It can record and compile data. It can store data in a chart or table within weeks. It helped the U.S. Government made the census faster.

The Microprocessor – The computers can already operate faster. This is because of microprocessors. A microprocessor is made up of silicon chips.

The First Personal Computer - International Business Machine (IBM) introduced the First IBM Personal Computer. The IBM personal computer is an example of a microprocessor.

A microcomputer is the smallest type of computer. It is designed for a single user. It can perform a complete computing system just like the huge computers.

A brief history of PUBLISHING

A brief history of PUBLISHING

  • Imagine a world without communications. Even the blind, deaf and mute have special ways of making others understand them. They use symbols and signs to communicate not only through spoken language but through many different forms like gestures, signals, sketches, drawings and carvings.

Prehistoric Era

  • It is known that our great forefathers used to write on walls of stone to record experiences and ideas. Many sketches were found in ancient caves where our great – great grandparents are believed to have lived long before anybody attempted writing history.

Assyrian and Babylonian Periods

  • In these periods, people used symbols known as cuneiform symbols for writing. These symbols were chiseled or engraved on baked stone or clay. Excavated cities of long age revealed thousands of marble pillars and clay tablets with cuneiform characters inscribed on them.

Egypt’s Contribution

  • The people of the Nile developed another kind of writing called hieroglyphics, which are found inside and outside of the great pyramids of Egypt. They also invented paper, which was made from the pith of the papyrus plant.

The Phoenician Alphabet

  • At around 200 B.C., the Phoenician invented the alphabet that we use today. They used this in recording their everyday business activities in different areas around Asia.
  • Alphabet – a sentence form of graphs or characters, used to present the phonemic structure of a language.

Chinese contribution

  • The problem was the development of tools and technology to reproduce these characters (alphabet) as a raised surface on a suitable material. During the 2nd century A.D., the Chinese began carving religious texts on stone, inking the raised surfaces and taking impressions. The carved wooden block called the block printing, uses ink that spreads evenly on metal or wood ands transfers evenly on paper.
  • The final necessity was paper. Ts’ ai Lun invented paper about 105 A.D.. He devised a way of floating in water the fivers from tree barks, old rags, and hemp waste allow the fibers to settle and then drying them ino a sheet.

Publishing Techniques through the years

  • Publishing is the activity that involves a selection of preparation and marketing of printed matter.
  • It also refers to the preparation and distribution of written material for public use, such as the information in textbooks and newspaper.
  • As it is known today depends on a series of 3 major inventions – writing, paper and printing.
  • Printing is the art and technology of reproducing words and pictures on paper, cloth, or other surfaces.

Gutenberg’s contribution

  • Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz Germany emerged as the person who was able to put together all the works of his predecessors. He invented the first cast movable pieces of type called the Movable Type.
  • Printing was done by aligning or setting individual pieces of lead with raised letters in a straight line to form words and lines of type. This is known as handsetting. These groups of arranged lead would be applied with ink and paper is pressed onto them to make a printed output.

Emergence of Modern Printing

  • A series of inventions in the 18th century spurred. All these inventions combined to make printing cheap and abundant (plentiful) and to place books in the hands of virtually anyone who wanted them.
  • About 1810, the first workable cylinder press was developed in England by Friedrich Konig. The Konig press offered a major innovation – it was the first to use a heavy rotating cylinder to apply pressure to type on a flat bed. The cylinder increased the speed of the printing process to about 1, 100 sheets per hour, four times greater than that of any previous press.
  • Another major advance in printing technology came in 1846 with an American Richard Hoe, created the first operational rotary press. It was made of rotating cylinders of running paper surrounding the central one.

NEW TECHNOLOGIES

  • Printing is being revolutionized by advances in technology in the fields of automation, electronics and computers. The combination of computer technology and photocomposition (composing of printed matter by photographic means using a machine called photocomposer) has revolutionized typesetting machines.
  • Typesetting means the assembly of letters into words and word s into lines, in a form suitable for multiple reproduction by one of the printing methods.

What is MS Word?

What is MS Word?

Microsoft Word is a powerful word processor that lets one quickly creates simple as well professional – looking documents. One can create letters, reports, manuals, certificates and calendars.

Documents often need to be revised to correct spelling and typing errors to ensure consistent formatting or to reorganize content. Microsoft Word provides a variety of tools that make editing documents easier. Word also offers the tools one needs to create polished documents.

  • Spelling and Grammar – checks the active document for possible spelling, grammar and writing style errors and displaying suggestions for correcting them.
  • Mail Merge – creates a single document and then lets Word create mostly identical copies of the document and merge the different names, addresses and so forth into each copy of the document.
  • Diagram – illustrates various conceptual materials and enlivens documents. Diagram types include Cycle, Target, Radial, Venn and Pyramid.
  • Tables – presents organized information.
  • Styles and Formats – formats text and applies a style that matches one’s taste and gives one’s documents a personalized touch.

The New Microsoft Office

-         Makes it easier that ever to read on one’s computer word now optimizes its display for your screen size and resolution. Similarly, a new reading layout view improves the reading experience.

-         Document protection can be fine – tuned to control document formatting, content or both.

-         One can quickly look for information online and on the computer without leaving the Office program. One can easily insert definitions and other research information into the document, as well as customize settings to suit research needs.

Start and Exit MS Word

One can launch MS word the same way one starts any other programs by using the start button.

  1. Click the Start Button.
  2. From the Start Menu, click on the Programs. On the Programs Menu, you might see a program named Microsoft Word; you can click this t launch MS Word. If Microsoft Word is not in the Programs menu, look for the folder named Microsoft Office or Office. Office programs such as Word, Excel and PowerPoint are usually inside this folder.
  3. Once you locate Microsoft Word, just click to launch the program. You may now start creating a document.

Parts of the MS Word Environment

Title Bar – a horizontal bat at the top of the dialog box, or toolbar that shows the name of the document, program or toolbar. At the right side of the Title bar are the control buttons, minimize, maximize, restore and close buttons.

Language Bar – appears in the upper – right corner of the screen in Microsoft Office Programs. It is used for speech recognition, handwriting  recognition and Input Method  Editors (IME).

Menu Bar – displays a list of commands. Some of these commands have icons next to them so one can quickly associate the command with its icon.

Standard Toolbar – one – click buttons for the things one often does with word, like opening a file, saving a file or undoing something.

Formatting Toolbar – buttons that allow you to change the appearance of the words/characters in your document.

Task pane – a window within an Office application that provides commonly used commands. Its location and small size allows one to use these commands while still working on other files.

Rulers – allows one to control the margins, indents and tab settings.

Workspace – consists of a blank page where one can enter text or place pictures and graphics.

Scroll bars – sliders and arrows used to see the parts of the document that are not seen in the current window.

Status Bar – contains information about the current document like “What page is this?”

Type a Question for Help Box – a box for typing questions to find the answer one needs.

Control Buttons

Minimize – reduces the window and places it on the taskbar.

Maximize – displays the full screen view of the window.

Restore – puts the window back to its previous.

Close – automatically closes the application.

Ang Ating MUNDO

 Paano at kailan ba nagsimula ang mundo?

 Ano ang hugis at laki nito?

 May mga bahagi ba ang mundo?

Ito ay ilan lang sa mga tanong na sinasagot sa pag – aaral ng heograpiya.

Ano ba ang heograpiya?

 Ang heograpiya ay isang agham sa pag-aaral sa mundo.

 Ito ay galing sa salitang Griyego na GEO na ang ibig sabihin ay “mundo” at “GRAPHIA” na nangangahulugang “larawan”.

 Ang heograpiya ay paglalarawan sa pisikal na katangian ng daigdig, maging sa mga tao, halaman at hayop na nabubuhay rito.

 Pinag – aaralan din sa heograpiya ang lokasyon at laki ng iba’t ibang bansa, kasama na ang klima at uri ng pamumuhay ng mga taong nakatira rito.

Bakit kainlangang mag – aral ng heograpiya?

 Mahalagang pag – aralan ang heograpiya upang makalikom ng mga kaalaman tungkol sa mundong ating ginagalawan. Ito ang magtuturo sa atin kung paano mamuhay sa mundo at kung paano ito mapapangalagaan.

Ang Ating Mundo

“Isang planeta lang sa buong kalawakan, ang maari nating tirahan; Kaya’t ang mundo, aking kaibigan, iyong mahalin at pangalagaan.”

 Dito tayo nakatira.

 Ito rin ang tirahan ng mga hayopat halaman.

 Ang ating mundo ay isa lamang sa mga planeta sa solar system.

 Ang mundo ay tinatawag ding daigdig. Malliit ang ating mundo kung ikumpara ito sa iba, subalit ito ang tanging planetang matitirhan ng tao.

 Maliban sa tao, lahat ng hayop at halaman na makikita sa paligid ay bahagi rin ng ating mundo. Maraming bansa at anyong – tubig ang bumubuo

Ang hugis ng Mundo

 Noong unang panahon ay kaunti lang ang kaalaman ng tao tungkol sa mundo. Inakala nila na ang mundo ay isang malaking patag. Dahil sa paniniwalang ito, kaunti lang ang mga taong naglalayag sa dagat dahil sa takot na baka mahulog sa kalawakan ang kanilang barko.

Ferdinand Magellan

 Isang bihasang nabiganteng Portuges, ay isa sa mga unang manlalakbay na nagpatunay na ang mundo ay bilog.

 Naniwala siya na mararating ang Silangan (Asya) sa pamamagitan ng paglalayag mula sa Kanuluran (Europa).

 Lumapit siya sa hari ng Portugal at inilahad ang kanyang paniniwala ngunit hindi pinansin ito ng hari kaya nagtungo siya sa hari ng Espanya.

 Nagkainteres ang hari kaya’t noong 1519, naglayag siya kasama ang 350 na tauhan sakay sa limang barko patungo sa Spice Islands sa Silangan.

Bahagi ng Mundo

 Ang mundo ay binubuo ng lupa at tubig. Higit na mas malaki ang bahaging tubig kung ikukumpara sa bahaging lupa. Halos tatlong kapat (3/4) ng mundo ay tubig at sangkapat (1/4) lamang ang lupa.

Bahaging Tubig

 Ang bahaging tubig ng mundo ay binubuo ng mga

– Karagatan

– Dagat

– Ilog

– Lawa

– Look

– Golpo

– Kipot at iba pang anyong tubig

 Ang karagatan ang pinakamalaking anyong tubig na bumubuo sa mundo. Mayroon tayong limang karagatan.

– Karagatang Pasipiko

– Karagatang Atlantika

– Karatagang Indian

– Karagatang Arktiko

– Karagatang Antarktiko

Bahaging Lupa

 Binubuo naman ng mga masang lupa at maliliit at malalaking pulo ang bahaging lupa ang ating mundo.

 Tinatawag na kontinente ang pinakamalawak na masang lupa. May pitong kontinente ang mundo:

 Asya

 Aprika

 Europa

 Australia

 Antartika

 Hilagang Amerika

 Timog Amerika

 Pulo ang tawag sa maliit na bahagi ng lupa na napapaligiran ng tubig. Ang ibabaw ng mga kontinente at pulo ay binubuo naman ng iba’t ibang anyong lupa tulad ng bulubundukin, bundok, bulkan, burol, kapatagan, lambak, talampas, tangway at iba pa.

Tandaan Natin

 Ang mundo o daigdig ay tahanan ng lahat ng tao, halaman, at hayop. Ang korte nito’y oblate speroid.

 Higit na malaki ang bahaging tubig kaysa bahaging lupa sa mundo.

 Ang bahaging tubig ay binubuo ng mga karagatan, dagat, ilog, lawa, look, golpo, kipot at iba pang anyong tubig.

 Ang bahaging lupa ay binubuo naman ng mga kontinente at pulo kung saan makikita ang bundok, kapatagan, bulkan, lambak, talampas at iba pang anyong lupa.

Paano mo maaalagaan ang ating mundo?

Introduction to Windows

What is an ordinary window? What is the importance of having a window inside a house or school?

  • An ordinary window is a wall opening in a room or house that lets the light and air pass through.
  • It is usually made of movable glass.
  • It is designed to see what is happening inside or outside of the house.

What is Microsoft Windows XP?

  • XP stands for  experience.
  • Microsoft Windows XP is a full operating system (OS) created by Microsoft Corporation.
  • It uses a Graphical User Interface (GUI) which allows users to communicate with the computer through icons and menus.

Best Features Windows XP

  • Simplicity
  • User – friendly – means the program is easy and simple to use.
  • Allows one to perform multitasking – it has the ability to run two or more programs at the same time which is called multitasking.
  • “Internet Interface” easily – one can easily access and work on the internet because of the availability of the internet browser software which is the Internet Explorer.

What is the importance of having Windows in a computer system?

  • As discussed, Windows is an operating system which makes the computer system work. Without Windows, one cannot operate the computer such as the system unit, monitor, and the keyboard.
  • Windows also allows the user to do several things at the same time like drawing pictures while listening to one’s favorite song.
  • One can also enjoy playing games with full blast sound and exciting graphical movements!

How to start Windows XP?

  • One can start Windows by pressing the power switch on the System Unit. Upon starting, it displays a desktop. The desktop may not be exactly the same as yours in your personal computers because of the different settings done in the computer.

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